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Antibody Labeling and Protein Labeling

Protein labeling and modification is a powerful tool for the isolation and analysis of proteins. The ProtOn™ Protein Labeling Kits simplify the attachment of either biotin or fluorescein to antibodies or other proteins. Vector Laboratories offers a variety of reagents and kits for antibody and protein labeling allowing for greater flexibility of experimental design.

Two functional groups on proteins that are often used in protein modification are primary amino groups, present in lysine residues and chain termini, and thiol groups in cysteine residues. The objective for protein modification determines the functional group that is chosen for labeling. Generally, a protein will have many primary amino groups accessible on its surface. Modification of these surface primary amino groups usually does not affect binding or enzymatic activity of the protein. This allows several labels to be covalently attached and subsequently detected and visualized. Thiol groups are usually less abundant and may be involved in structural elements of the protein like disulfide bridges. Modification of thiol groups, on the other hand, may yield insight into protein structure and function.

Vector Laboratories offers reagents for the attachment of labels to either primary amino groups or thiol groups along with their corresponding detection reagents.

Glycoproteins may also be labeled with biotin hydrazide through their carbohydrate groups.

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