quality reagents for:
Vector Laboratories offers a wide variety of products for
neurobiology. Our fluorochrome and enzyme-based
detection systems and our proprietary substrates are staples of
neurobiological research because of their high sensitivity and
low background. We also provide biotinylated neuronal tracers
and intracellular labeling reagents such as biotinylated dextran
amines and NEUROBIOTIN™ Tracer. Our expertise in lectin
isolation and purification led to the development of a range of
lectin neuronal tracers and neural glycobiology reagents that are
used to study neuroanatomical connections and structure. In
addition, we offer several primary antibodies specific for brain
and neural antigens.
Neuronal Tracers. Neuronal tracers are used to elucidate
anatomical connections of the nervous system. Tracers
are transported retrogradely, from axon to the soma, or
anterogradely, from the soma to the axon. These tracers are
used to determine cells of origin of axons that innervate a
certain structure and to identify the target of axonal projections
from a particular neuron. Vector Laboratories features reagents
for both anterograde and retrograde tracing.
Neuronal Glycobiology. Detection of neurons and support
structures using lectins has provided valuable information in
the field of neuroscience. For example, small sensory neurons
can be broadly classified into two groups based on expression
levels of neuropeptides and nerve growth factor receptor. One
group expresses a cell surface glycoprotein that binds the lectin
Griffonia simplicifolia I, Isolectin B4. As a result, it has become
useful to classify neurons as IB4 positive or IB4 negative. Other
lectins, such as Lycopersicon esculentum, Ricinus communis
agglutinin I, peanut agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin
have been used to detect various types of glia.
Primary Antibodies. We offer a selection of primary
antibodies against brain and neural antigens.
Detection. High sensitivity, low background, consistency,
and reliability are hallmarks of detection systems from Vector
Laboratories. Various detection and visualization strategies
are possible using our reagents. Reagents that are conjugated
to fluorochromes can be visualized directly by fluorescence
microscopy. Lectins directly conjugated to peroxidase can be
detected using a peroxidase substrate. Vector® substrates
offer a palette of colors and characteristics that are suitable for
different types of analyses (see Section I, “Enzyme Substrates”).
Some substrates, such as DAB, Vector® VIP, and Vector® SG
result in electron dense products, allowing structural analysis
by electron microscopy. In addition, more than one substrate
can be introduced into a tissue section for multiple labeling (see
our brochure, “Discovery Through Color: A Guide to Multiple
Biotinylated reagents can be detected either with a
fluorescence-based avidin or streptavidin detection system or
an enzymed-based system such as the VECTASTAINS®Elite
® ABC kit followed by a chromogenic substrate.
Unconjugated lectins can be detected using one of several
different strategies. When available, use a biotinylated
antibody to the lectin followed by an enzyme-based or
fluorescence-based avidin or streptavidin detection system.
Using an unlabeled antibody to the lectin, a biotinylated
antibody to this anti-lectin antibody can be employed followed
by a (strept)avidin detection system.
Alternatively, using an unlabeled antibody to the lectin,
visualization can be achieved with a non-biotin, one-step
ImmPRESS™ (peroxidase) polymer detection reagent followed
by a peroxidase substrate.